Methods: Data from ongoing breast cancer patients were collected at Taipei Hospital in New Taipei City, Taiwan. Information collected included age, family history of breast cancer, age at diagnosis, subtype of breast cancer, ER/PR/HER-2 status, stage of cancer, lymph node status, history of surgery performed on the breast, chemotherapy and targeted therapy regimens, and therapy side effects. Comparative data on breast cancer in the United States was collected using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.
Stunting is known to result from the immediate effects of inadequate food intake, low birth weight, and incidence and management of diseases. Recently reliable and valid diagnostic anthropometric measures (ie, heights, weights, body mass indices, and upper midarm circumferences) for malnutrition in children younger than 5 years have been established. Height-for-age measures identify stunting. Weight-for-height measures are the primary measure for wasting. Body mass indices are used to identify children as underweight, overweight, or at risk for overweight. Pitting edema, muscle wasting, and related clinical observations help identify the specific nutritional deficiencies contributing to starvation. Children experiencing insufficient protein will have bilateral edema and kwashiorkor. Marasmus is distinguished with anthropometric and clinical data and is the term for starvation from both calories and protein. Training professionals on proper diagnosis of various forms of malnutrition using the recommended anthropometric and clinical criteria will help target specific types of malnutrition. Specificity of diagnosis will enable improvements in treatment and prevention plans and policies. Additional factors at both the household and community level need to be considered to address the root problems. The sustained burden of malnutrition is prohibiting Honduras from accomplishing at least 6 of the eight 2015 Millennium Development Goals.
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection characterized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a neglected tropical disease. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that there are more than 200 million people affected worldwide, with 85% of cases occurring in Africa. Infection occurs through contact with contaminated fresh water, and prevalence could be reduced by modifying socioeconomic and cultural behaviors. Lake Victoria is known to be a major source of the parasite, and proximity to it confers an increased risk for infection; lakeside villages of Western Tanzania exhibit a prevalence rate greater than 50%. In 2012, a group of medical students and physicians from Touro University examined the effect of education on the incidence of schistosomiasis by conducting a public health intervention in lakeside villages in Western Tanzania. Currently, the WHO aims to reduce the incidence of the disease by regular treatment with the drug Praziquantel. However, examining the effects of health education alone can determine whether prevention education would be an effective addition to the current regime. In our study, a total of 804 residents from 3 villages (Sota, Minigo, and Masonga) were tested for the parasite using stool samples, and 796 participants were asked how they believed schistosomiasis was contracted. Odds ratios (ORs) were found for each village using those who tested negative as controls, and correct answers were interpreted as exposure to education. In Sota the OR was 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4194-0.9546), in Minigo, OR=0.833 (95% CI, 0.2772-2.5047), and in Masonga, OR=0.63 (95% CI, 0.4498-1.2727). For all villages combined, the OR was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.4903-0.862). With each case having an OR less than 1, these data indicate that those educated on schistosomiasis were less likely to be infected, therefore illustrating the efficacy of education in preventing the disease. While periodic treatment reduces the short-term burden of disease, health education is more sustainable and leads to a lifetime reduction in morbidity. It is therefore a better approach to reducing the disease burden than prophylactic treatment alone. 2b1af7f3a8