Mechanical soil disturbance also includes soil compactionthrough wheel impact of machinery, especially important in large-scalemechanized agriculture, e.g. plantations (sugar cane) or biannual crops(cotton). In a zero-tillage farming system, consideration must be given toreducing both the random placement of tyres/wheels in fields as well as thepotential for compaction from animal hooves. Pietola, Horn and Yli-Halla (2003)reported the destructive effect of cattle trampling on the soil structure.Proffitt, Bendotti and McGarry (1995) demonstrated the almost total loss of soilporosity in the soil surface as a result of trampling by sheep. There is abelief that draught animals cause less land degradation than tractors. However,there are reports of soil compaction on smallholder farming enterprises in bothMalawi (Douglas et al., 1999) and Bangladesh (Brammer, 2000). The hoovesof draught animals and the shearing effect of ploughs or hand hoes, which areused repeatedly at a constant depth, can cause severe compacted layers. Grazinganimals should be removed from zero-till fields in moist-wet soil conditions asthe compaction risk is greatest at these times.
Here, we report the efficacy of preserving fruit and vegetable discards via ensiling. Ensiling is a microbial-driven process commonly used on dairy farms for the very purpose of preserving freshly harvested feed crops (around 35% DM) for prolonged storage and feeding. But data are scarce on the utility and robustness of ensiling fruit and vegetable discards, which are much wetter (moisture around 85%, compared to 65% for feed crops typically ensiled). We hypothesized that fresh fruit and vegetables can be co-ensiled with crop residue biomass to produce high quality feeds for cattle. To test the hypothesis, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments in which fresh fruit and vegetables were ensiled alone or in combination (i.e. co-ensiling) with plant biomass such as corn crop residues or spent mushroom compost (see Methods for details). The overarching goal of our research is to develop viable solutions for optimal utilization of IUUB materials, contributing to sustainable livestock production toward enhanced regenerative agri-food systems. Specific objectives included: (i) assess the feasibility of ensiling fresh fruit and vegetables (FFV) alone, or co-ensiling with various biomass substrates via longitudinal studies, (ii) determine key nutritional characteristics of ensiled products, and (iii) evaluate the digestibility of ensiled products via in vitro incubation experiments.
Symptoms are loss of long hair from the mane and tail of horses, and from the switch of cattle; loss of body hair of swine; and sore feet with inflammation at the coronary band in horses, cattle, and swine, followed by lateral cracking and other deformities of the hoof. Dullness and emaciation are also pronounced. Lesions at the horn bases in cattle are similar to those of the hoof, but less pronounced. Anemia, liver atrophy and cirrhosis, atrophy of the heart, erosion of the joints of the long bones, deterioration of the bone marrow, and some kidney lesions are prevalent in horses and cattle. Sheep apparently are not affected in the same manner as cattle and horses. In fact, no chronic effects of selenium in sheep have been reported, except for severely reduced reproduction rates when the animals graze pastures that produce the typical syndrome in cattle.
Signs of Poisoning: The signs of intoxication are primarily indicative of cardiac and gastrointestinal dysfunction. Signs most commonly seen include colic, diarrhea, weakness, depression, cold extremities, weak pulse, and irregular heartbeat. Horses and cattle will exhibit posterior paralysis. Necropsy lesions are usually restricted to reddening, edema, and small hemorrhages of the stomach mucosa.
Conditions of Poisoning: Losses occur in areas where large bean crops are produced each year and other forages are relatively sparse. Thus, ingestion of relatively large amounts of mesquite beans can occur over a period of many months. Typically, cattle consume the greatest quantity of beans after frost when the pods are lying on the ground.
In Kansas, more than 2,000 cattle died in a record heat wave. In Tunisia, fires razed fields of grain to the ground. In southern China, historic flooding damaged almost 100,000 hectares of crops. In northern Italy, a farm lobby warned that drought could claim half the region's agricultural output.
Corn is typically considered the gold standard energy feed for beef cattle and is heavily used in beef cattle diets, particularly in finishing diets. Corn is a relatively high-energy feed due to its high starch content. It has roughly 9 percent CP and 88 percent TDN. Because of its high starch content, cattle must be adapted slowly to corn or rations containing high levels of corn. Because starch is rapidly digestible in the rumen, too much corn at one feeding can result in acidosis and, in some cases, death. Processing (cracking, grinding, steam-flaking) corn can further enhance the digestibility of starch and result in greater potential for acidosis. Due to these limitations, it is recommended that corn never be used as a sole feed source.
Grain sorghum is a cereal grain that is sometimes used as cattle feed. It contains slightly less energy than corn and slightly more protein in percentage terms. Grain sorghum is a palatable feed that is typically grown in areas too dry for corn production. Due to its physical nature (hard endosperm), it often requires processing (cracking, rolling, steaming) before its total nutrient content can be used. As with feeding corn, use caution when feeding grain sorghum. Adapt cattle slowly to high-starch diets to prevent acidosis.
Some human food waste can be incorporated into cattle diets. Bakery meal (bakery waste) is an example. It consists of various combinations of breads, crackers, chips, cookies, cakes, and doughnuts that are usually dried and ground together. Bakery waste is quite palatable to cattle. It is generally higher in energy (TDN) and crude protein than corn but very low in fiber concentration. Bakery waste is classified as energy feed, but not as a protein or roughage feed. Therefore, protein and roughage need to be supplied to cattle from other feeds and forages when feeding bakery waste. 2b1af7f3a8