Traditionally, frogs and toads are considered to communicate primarilyby using acoustic cues, with males typically calling to attract females. However,in noisy tropical rainforests by fast flowing streams, acoustic communicationbecomes more problematic. In these environments male frogs have evolved anarray of visual cues which complement acoustic cues to communicate between eachother and to also attract females. Visual communication has evolvedindependently in several lineages of frog species, mainly in diurnal speciesinhabiting noisy, stream-side environments.
The Bornean rock frog (Stauroisparvus) from Borneo and the small torrent frog (Micrixalus saxicola) from the Western Ghats of India belong todifferent frog families (Figure 2). Males of both species use complexsignalling involving high pitched calls, foot flagging, and tapping (footlifting) to defend perching sites against other males (Preininger et al. 2013). The Bornean rock frog hasconspicuous white feet, whereas the small torrent frog has feet which are thesame colour as its body. In a study to examine the differences in the behaviourof the two species, Preininger et al.(2013) found that in the Bornean rock frog, foot-flagging achieved a 13 timeshigher contrast against their visual background than the feet of the small torrentfrog. In addition, the Bornean rock frog primarily responded to stimuli with footflagging, whereas the small torrent frog responded mainly with calls but neverfoot-flagging on its own (Preininger etal. 2013). The authors propose that in the small torrent frog foot-flaggingis in a transient state, evolving from its current use in physical fightingbehaviour.
Despite scathing criticism, Prime Minister Ariel Sharon vowed to use as much military force as necessary "to protect Israeli citizens" against Palestinian suicide-bomb attacks. Sharon was meeting with his cabinet Sunday in the wake of last week's violence in which Israeli F-16 jets pounded Palestinian security compounds in the West Bank and Gaza Strip in retaliation for yet another suicide-bomb mission - this time at a shopping mall in the coastal city of Netanya. Six people died in the latter incident; 12 in the former. The Israeli response provoked a torrent of international criticism.
An end to all political contact with Israel was called for by Arab League foreign ministers, a move that analysts said likely would stop even the joint Egyptian-Jordanian peace initiative launched last month. The recommendation stopped short of calling for a breakoff of diplomatic relations. Meanwhile, senior Palestinian officials accused the US of being "primarily responsible for the escalation of Israeli aggression."
THE London Corresponding Society having determined to call a General Meetingof its Members, and other Friends, to Parliamentary Reform; on the 31st of Julylast; a requisition was accordingly prepared, which after having undergone alegal investigation, was regularly advertised in the Courier of the 22d andSunday Review of the 23d past; and posting bills were distributed, and thepreparations for holding the same went on regulary, when on the Saturdaypreceding the meeting, an advertisement appeared from the magistrates ofBow-street, stating that the meeting would be illegal, and calling on allconstables, &c, to attend the same. The Executive Committee met in theevening, and immediately deputed Citizen SAMUEL WEBBE, one of their members,with a person who signed the requisition, to the magistrates of Bowe-street,with the following letter:
The Executive Committee of the London Corresponding Society, in consequenceof an advertisement from the Public Office, Bowe-street, has deputed S. WEBBEto learn wherein the requisition of the said Society, for calling a generalmeeting on the 31st, is illegal. If the magistrate or magistrates4will point out wherein the illegality consists, the London CorrespondingSociety will pledge itself not to touch on any such points.
THIS Committee, having read an advertisement, inserted in the PublicNewspapers by the Magistrates of the Public Office, Bowe-street; but beingconvinced that the original requisition of the housholders, Members of theLondon Corresponding Society, calling the Meeting, IS STRICTLY CONFORMABLE TOLAW, AND TO ALL THE PROVISIONS of the ACT, 36 GEORGE III. The said Meeting ofthis Society and others, Friends of Reform, will take place as advertised, onMonday, the 31st of July, in a field, near the VETERINARY COLLEGE, ST PANCRAS.
This defection, in the great leaders of Parliamentary Reform,convinced many friends to the liberty and happiness of their country, thatnothing but an association of the people, independent of any faction, couldbring about this desireable change. Accordingly, various new associations wereformed about the year 1791, and among these the London Corresponding Society,hoping by a communication of sentiment, to ascertain the public will, and unitethe exertions of the nation. The success was equal to the importance of theenterprise. Men generally began to see their RIGHTS, and to feel the necessiryof associating to obtain them. But a profligate administration, dreading theconsequences to themselves, of a people united, and determined to be free,resolved to divide them by false alarms, by calumny and misrepresentation.Those who opposed the corruption of Parliament and the Government, were chargedwith a design to subvert the Constitution; those who contended that an equaland universal respresentation of the people, in their own House of Parliament,was the only means of stemming the torrent of corruption, were stigmatized aslevellers, whose only object was the equalization of property. These insidiousartifices, which were intended to divide the poor and wealthy citizens, wereunfortunately too successful.
Chronic hunger conditions deteriorated. As a telltale torrent of desperately hungry people moved to refugee camps in neighboring countries, there were more than the usual complicating circumstances. "There was a kind of perfect storm of very bad conditions-climactic, political and security and many other things-at just the very point when we should have been focused on this, other things were happening, the Arab Spring and other big news events," explains Courtland Robinson, PhD '04, associate professor in International Health and deputy director of the Center for Refugee and Disaster Response.
But there is also a nagging sense that, as Robinson says, "we took our eye off the ball." That has practitioners on the front line calling for reforms that will further depoliticize the process and secure more upfront donor aid commitments that can be tapped without waiting for key capitals to deliberate each time there is a crisis.
IT is a long while since the toll-gates, which once barricadedthe approaches to the city of London proper, finally disappeared front the public ways. The localities, where they oncebarred the road to the traveller who used any other means oflocomotion than those with which he was naturally provided,are now not easily identified. It is probable, however, thatthe toll-gates stood very near the spots where were the gatesof the ancient city when London was a walled capital. If so,their sites would be indicated, though with no very great precision, by the situation on the map of Aldgate, Aldersgate,Bishopsgate, etc., etc., in former times the gates of the oldsurrounding fortification. But city walls and gates, and toll-bars too, have all been swept away by the rushing stream ofcommerce; yet though the material obstacles have vanished long ago, the pecuniary one remains. Vested interests,stronger than stone walls, endure in full vigour when thesehave crumbled to decay; and from this cause it is that, thoughthe toll-man has been long ago turned out of house and home,he is not yet turned out of office, but continues to levy hisexactions after he has been deprived of all semblance of authority, and of all show of right to the tax to which helaysclaim. The houseless and unsheltered functionary, who at thepresent day represents the corporation of London in theircapacity of highway tax-gatherers, is a very forlorn-lookingindividual, who has to do battle for his levies, occasionally ata disadvantage, with any man who chooses to play the recusant; and, to say the truth, his adversaries are by no meansfew. He is a man evidently born to contend with opposition,and to get the better of it. He has in his time rubbedshoulders with so many discomforts, that it is a questionwhether he would feel at home without them. He is aweather-worn subject, somewhat wiry-faced and hard-featured,and with a figure thin enough almost to find shelter to leewardof a gas-lamp, and active enough to run down a fast-trottinghorse in less time than it would take to saddle him. His occupation is no sinecure; he has to be thoroughly awake everyday and all day long. Homer may nod, but not he; unlesshe choose to pay for it by the loss of income. His wholecareer in office is a continuous and praiseworthy example of"the pursuit of halfpence under difficulties." In this pursuithe is constantly baffled, but then he is as constantly successful.If half of his unwilling vassals elude him, the other half payhim the hard cash; so that if he gets a grievance one minute,he gathers compensation the next. He is liable to be cheatedevery hour, and undergoes that penalty many times a day;but he has not time to grumble, and, more than that, does notthink of grumbling, but looks the sharper after the next comer. His occupation has taught him some practical philosophy.He knows the value of good temper and the folly of resentments. He is a civil fellow in the main, and will answeryour questions readily enough; but you must not expect himto look you in the face: his eyes are ever on the highway,and if he shoots off like a rocket in the middle of a response,it is because he has a reason for it - at least in perspective.Sometimes, when the day has been unproductive, he willavenge the delinquency of one defaulter by the persecution ofanother - hunting him down with great pertinacity, and following him from street to street, leaving the way clearmeanwhile to all who may come. This is an imprudence,however, of which he is seldom guilty, because it is one whichbrings its immediate penalty. The reader who would like to catch a glimpse of this activesubject must look for him in some one of the thoroughfares ofcommerce, just at the point which marks the limits of thecorporation domains. If he have a map of London in whichthe city proper is marked by a different colour, he will see ata glance all the inlets and outlets which have to be guardedand taxed by the toll-man. Thus there is one at Holborn-hill,whose occupation can be no sinecure, seeing that he has to dothe duty of three imaginary five-barred gates, placed, one atShoe-lane, one at Farringdon-street, and one at Snow-hill.There is another pluralist, who stands at the west-end of Fleet-street, keeping one eye constantly on Temple-bar and anotheron Chancery-lane. They are all authorised and enjoined tocollect twopence from the drivers of all vehicles, not belongingto freemen of London, bringing goods into the city. Theprincipal city toll-man is, or was, a speculating Jew, whorents the whole of the tolls from the corporation. He supplies his assistants with tickets, which, like turnpike ticketselsewhere, are delivered to the drivers who pay the toll.Whether he pays his inferiors by stated salaries, or sells themthe tickets at a discount, we are not in a condition to certifybut judging from the indefatigable efforts of some of them inthe prosecution of their profession-seeing how recklesslythey dash into the torrent of rushing vehicles, heedless ofhorses' hoofs and rattling wheels, after a driver who turns adeaf ear to their challenge - we are inclined to suspect thatthey have in some way or other a personal interest in the capture of every identicaltwopence. Be this as it may, thetoll-man evidently reaps no great emolument from his profession, which is far more wearisome and laborious than it isprofitable. Upon his first appointment, he is generally seengaping about him in a state of anxious bewilderment, halfuncertain upon whom to levy his unwelcome tax. By thetime that he has got the freemen's carts by heart, and learnedto distinguish his lawful victims, he has usually made thediscovery that his vocation is intolerably exacting, and not tobe endured. We never knew one of them stand the ordealmany years. A man who would get through such a functionwell is generally deserving of something better; and anythingis better than a perpetual tramp out-of-doors in all weathersafter flying twopences, in which he has but the merest fractional interest, if he have any at all. So it comes to passthat he looks out for repose in some other calling; and,mounted on the step of an omnibus as a conductor, or stuckinto a cabin reared in the mud of the Thames as pay-takerfor a penny steamer, he congratulates himself that he no longerruns himself out of breath after the corporation coppers. It is not easy to come at the origin of these city tolls. Thereis, however, a charter granted to the mayor and citizens ofLondon by Henry IV., which throws some light upon the subject. This charter was bestowed in return for the loyalassistance they rendered to the king in the matter of the conspiracy and rebellion in which his throne and life wereattempted, in the first year of his reign, by the Abbot ofWestminster, the Dukes of Albemarle, Surrey, and Exeter,the Earls of Gloucester and Salisbury, the Bishop of Carlisle,and Sir Thomas Blount. The conspiracy was discovered byaccident, and the rebellion in which it prematurely explodedwas quelled by the promptitude of the mayor of London,who supplied Henry with six thousand citizens completelyarmed. These were soon increased, by volunteers from theneighbourhood, to the number of twenty thousand. The rebelarmy was overthrown, and their leaders soon after taken and executed The charter, which bears date the 25th May,1399, confers, among other privileges, upon "the said citizens, their heirs and successors, the custody as well of thegates of Newgate and Ludgate as all other the gates and posterns of the same city." The charter, however, does notmake mention of the sums to be levied as tolls at the saidgates and posterns; and it would be absurd to suppose thatthere is any prescriptive right so ancient as the charter for subjecting each vehicle to the charge oftwopence - a sumwhich in those days would have purchased a joint of meat. That those tolls have been often the pretence for fraudulentexactions we may gather from the following record, preserved in the city memorials : - In the year 1743, one Anthony Wright brought an action against the lessee of oneof the gates, who by his plea insisted on a prescriptive rightto receive twopence for the passage of each cart laden withgoods and merchandise amounting to the weight of one tonand upwards. It appeared, however, by the evidence, thatthe usage had been to take a penny only for a cart with twohorses, however heavily laden; and a verdict was given forthe plaintiff against the lessee. We conceive the time is not far distant when the good sense of the corporation of London will lead to the final abolition of the city tolls, which, besides being a nuisance, mustoperate in some degree against the interests of commerce,which it is to their especial advantage to promote. 2b1af7f3a8