Daily intake amounts listed in terms of cups or ounces may not actually translate to cups or ounces of the food you are eating. This is because some foods are denser than others, and some have more air or contain more water. For example, in the vegetables food group, 1 cup of raw spinach and 1/2 cup of cooked spinach both count as 1 cup-equivalent because they have the same nutritional value. Cup-equivalents and ounce-equivalents help you understand the different amounts of foods from each food group that you should eat.
Consuming dairy helps older adults maintain strong bones and provides several vital nutrients, including calcium, potassium, and vitamin D. For your heart health, pick from the many low-fat or fat-free choices in the dairy group. These give you important vitamins and minerals, with less fat. Certain fortified dairy alternatives can provide similar nutritional content to dairy.
Therefore, following a gluten-free diet will likely change your nutrient intake. Some gluten-free breads and cereals have significantly varied nutrient levels compared with the products they are replacing.
Cereals and legumes are outstanding sources of macronutrients, micronutrients, phytochemicals, as well as antinutritional factors. These components present a complex system enabling interactions with different components within food matrices. The interactions result in insoluble complexes with reduced bioaccessibility of nutrients through binding and entrapment thereby limiting their release from food matrices. The interactions of nutrients with antinutritional factors are the main factor hindering nutrients release. Trypsin inhibitors and phytates inherent in cereals and legumes reduce protein digestibility and mineral release, respectively. Interaction of phytates and phenolic compounds with minerals is significant in cereals and legumes. Fermentation and germination are commonly used to disrupt these interactions and make nutrients and phytochemicals free and accessible to digestive enzymes. This paper presents a review on traditional fermentation and germination processes as a means to address myriad interactions through activation of endogenous enzymes such as α-amylase, pullulanase, phytase, and other glucosidases. These enzymes degrade antinutritional factors and break down complex macronutrients to their simple and more digestible forms.
Oats, formally named Avena sativa, is a type of cereal grain from the Poaceae grass family of plants. The grain refers specifically to the edible seeds of oat grass, which is what ends up in our breakfast bowls. Whether loved or hated for their mushy yet hearty texture when cooked, oats are most prized for their nutritional value and health benefits. The Food and Drug Administration allows the use of a health claim on food labels associating a reduced risk of coronary heart disease with the consumption of beta-glucan soluble fiber from whole grain oats.  Oatmeal is also a desired asset to those trying to lose weight and control hunger levels due to its high water and soluble fiber content.
Legumes and cereals contain high amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients but also anti-nutritional factors. Major anti-nutritional factors, which are found in edible crops include saponins, tannins, phytic acid, gossypol, lectins, protease inhibitors, amylase inhibitor, and goitrogens. Anti-nutritional factors combine with nutrients and act as the major concern because of reduced nutrient bioavailability. Various other factors like trypsin inhibitors and phytates, which are present mainly in legumes and cereals, reduce the digestibility of proteins and mineral absorption. Anti-nutrients are one of the key factors, which reduce the bioavailability of various components of the cereals and legumes. These factors can cause micronutrient malnutrition and mineral deficiencies. There are various traditional methods and technologies, which can be used to reduce the levels of these anti-nutrient factors. Several processing techniques and methods such as fermentation, germination, debranning, autoclaving, soaking etc. are used to reduce the anti-nutrient contents in foods. By using various methods alone or in combinations, it is possible to reduce the level of anti-nutrients in foods. This review is focused on different types of anti-nutrients, and possible processing methods that can be used to reduce the level of these factors in food products.
Legumes are edible crops that belong to the Leguminosae family and second only to cereals in terms of level of human consumption (Sánchez-Chino et al. 2015; Seigler 2005). Common legumes, which are consumed all over the world include cranberry beans, black beans, Great Northern beans, navy beans, chickpeas, kidney beans, lentils etc. Legume grains contain desirable levels of ingredients that can enhance nutritional quality such as high protein concentration, potassium, fiber, and low glycemic index. Consumption of legume seeds is believed to have a strong impact on blood pressure reduction while conferring antioxidant benefits (Polak et al. 2015; Vaz Patto et al. 2015). Soybean (Glycine max) comes under the leguminous family; it is widely grown in tropical, subtropical and temperate climates, containing a higher amount of protein (36%) than cereals, nearly 30% of carbohydrates and exceptional amounts of minerals, vitamins and dietary fiber. Soybean is one of the most important crops used for producing edible oil because the seed contains about 20% of oil (Edema et al. 2005; Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations 2004; Gibson and Benson 2005). Soybean could also be used for making nutritious food products such as cookies, snack foods, bread, soups and pasta due to the rich protein concentration as well as balanced amino acid profile (Edema et al. 2005). Silva et al. (2019) reported that soybean is also used for producing soymilk, which can be consumed as such or used for preparing fermented soymilk, tofu and soy yogurt.
In rural areas, micronutrient deficiencies such as those involving vitamins and minerals are one of the biggest causes of health-related problems (Black et al. 2013). This is because the presence of micronutrients in bulk amounts is not the only important nutritional factor but also their bioavailability is critical in meeting human nutrient needs. In raw foodstuffs, the lower mineral bioavailability decreases the nutritional value of these foods, which could lead to the development of metabolic health disorders. Thus, the nutritional condition of a population can be improved by enhancing bioavailability of food nutrients (Bouis et al. 2019; Gupta et al. 2015). Unfortunately, millets, though cheap and can be grown easily are reported to have low a nutritional value due to the presence of anti-nutritional factors, which reduce nutrient bioavailability (Sarita and Singh 2016). Legumes also comprise of many natural toxicants or anti-nutrients, which include tannins, metal chelators, protease inhibitors, saponins, cyanogens, phytic acid, isoflavonoids, etc. (Pariza 1996). One of the major anti-nutrients is phytate, which chelates and mainly affects bioavailability of calcium and other micronutrients such as iron, copper and zinc. Some other factors such as polyphenols and oxalates are also considered as anti-nutrients that can limit food mineral bioavailability (Kaushik et al. 2018). However, phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds show antioxidant activity through their potency in scavenging ROS, reducing power and/or metal-chelating activity towards ferric and ferrous ions. While not all polyphenols exhibit chelating properties, phytochemicals like isoflavones, genistein and biochanin A are considered as ideal antioxidants because they possess the quality of reducing agents in addition to metal ion-chelating properties (de Camargo et al. 2019).
Like other grains, several anti-nutritional factors are found in wheat, which may have effect on the digestibility of wheat products and by this means, affect human health (FAO 2018a, b). Anti-nutrients can have significant adverse effects on the nutritional value of foods; therefore, reducing their concentration in foods is a major goal in human nutrition. Subsequently, legumes are commonly eaten as protein sources along with cereals, but in order to eliminate the anti-nutrients, suitable processing of these food substances should be encouraged before their consumption (Reddy and Pierson 1994). Like other legumes, peanuts are also comprised of anti-nutrients, which can impair nutrient bioavailability through formation of indigestible complexes with minerals and proteins (Francis et al. 2002; Lönnerdal 2002). In addition to decreasing nutrient bioavailability, anti-nutrients can become toxic when present beyond a certain amount. Therefore, reduction in the levels of anti-nutritional factors in edible crops is an area of research interest due to the need to prevent toxicity and associated health problems caused by these anti-nutrients (Gemede and Ratta 2014).
The anti-nutritional factors, which reduce the nutritional value of foods can be reduced by the use of traditional food preparation methods such as fermentation, cooking, soaking and puffing. These food processing techniques reduce anti-nutritional factors, increase protein digestibility and improve the biological value of cereal crops (Handa et al. 2017; Jaybhaye and Srivastav 2015). Therefore, the main focus of this review is to discuss various anti-nutrients present in foods and also assess processing methods that can be used to reduce the concentration of anti-nutritional factors such as phytate, saponins, polyphenols and protease inhibitors. 2b1af7f3a8